Igneous rocks composed mostly of dark, iron- and magnesium-rich minerals.
The molten material deep in the Earth from which rocks are formed.
An ore-forming process whereby valuable minerals are concentrated by settling out of a cooling magma.
A geophysical survey using a pair of magnetometers a fixed distance apart, to measure the difference in the magnetic field with height above the ground.
A process in which a magnetically susceptible mineral is separated from gangue minerals by applying a strong magnetic field; ores of iron are commonly treated in this way.
A geophysical survey that measures the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field.
A measure of the degree to which a rock is attracted to a magnet.
Black, magnetic iron ore, an iron oxide.
An instrument used to measure the magnetic attraction of underlying rocks.
A mechanical ventilator installed at the surface; operates by either exhausting or blowing to induce airflow through the mine roadways and workings.
A carrier of mine personnel, by rail or rubber tire, to and from the work area.
A safety hole constructed in the side of a gangway, tunnel, or slope in which miner can be safe from passing locomotives and car. Also called a refuge hole.
An entry used exclusively for personnel to travel form the shaft bottom or drift mouth to the working section; it is always on the intake air side in gassy mines. Also, a small passage at one side or both sides of a breast, used as a traveling way for the miner, and sometimes, as an airway, or chute, or both.
A form of claim-staking practised in some jurisdictions whereby claims are staked by drawing lines around the claim on claim maps at a government office.
A metamorphic rock derived from the recrystallization of limestone under intense heat and pressure.
Cash deposited with a broker as partial payment of the purchase price for any type of listed stock. The stock is held by the broker as security for the loan.
An orebody of minimal profitability.
The "worth" of a company's total shares outstanding, computed by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the share price.
An order to buy or sell at the best price available. In absence of any specified price or limit, an order is considered to be "at the market".
A product of a smelter, containing metal and some sulfur, which must be refined further to obtain pure metal.
Measured Mineral Resource
A 'Measured Mineral Resource' is that part of a Mineral Resource for which quantity,
grade or quality, densities, shape, physical characteristics are so well established that they
can be estimated with confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical
and economic parameters, to support production planning and evaluation of the economic
viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed and reliable exploration,
sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations
such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes that are spaced closely enough to
confirm both geological and grade continuity.
A surveying term that establishes a line of reference. The bearing is used to designate direction. The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and the line. Azimuths are angles measured clockwise from any meridian.
General classification for ore deposits formed at moderate depths (between 1 and 5 kilometers) and temperatures (between 200 and 300 degrees celsius). Usually occur in, or near to, igneous rocks, with mineralization present as replacement deposits or fracture filling.
Commonly-associated metals include gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc.
The study of extracting metals from their ores.
Rocks which have undergone a change in texture or composition as the result of heat and/or pressure.
A pronounced change in the constitution of rock effected by pressure, heat, and water that results in a more compact and more highly crystalline condition.
Rock consisting of thin, alternating layers of granite and schist.
A plant in which ore is treated and metals are recovered or prepared for smelting; also a revolving drum used for the grinding of ores in preparation for treatment.
Ore that contains sufficient valuable mineral to be treated by milling process.
A measure of the voltage of an electric current, specifically, one-thousandth of a volt.
Ore reserves that are known to be extractable using a given mining plan.
The term employed to designate the operations involved in preparing a mine for ore extraction. These operations include tunneling, sinking, cross-cutting, drifting, and raising.
One who is engaged in the business or occupation of extracting ore, coal, precious substances, or other natural materials from the earth's crust.
An inorganic compound occurring naturally in the earth's crust, with a distinctive set of physical properties, and a definite chemical composition.
Any mass of host rock in which minerals of potential commercial value occur
A person qualified by education, training, and experience in mining engineering. A trained engineer with knowledge of the science, economics, and arts of mineral location, extraction, concentration and sale, and the administrative and financial problems of practical importance in connection with the profitable conduct of mining.
The complete or partial failure of a blasting charge to explode as planned.
Ore or rock that has been broken by blasting.
A representative piece of ore that is taken from a muck pile and then assayed to determine the grade of the pile.
A charge of high explosive fired in contact with the surface of a rock after being covered with a quantity of wet mud, wet earth, or sand, without any borehole being used. Also termed adobe, dobie, and sandblast (illegal in coal mining).